Natural Resource Management
Globalization and resource management
The extraction of natural resources in lesser developed countries is a complex issue that often has significant social and environmental impacts, including the loss of critical habitat and other ecosystems. Many of these impacts are linked to international trade agreements, which can provide incentives for multinational corporations to extract natural resources in these countries with minimal environmental regulations and limited protections for local communities.
One mode of leveraging resource extraction in these countries is through the use of free trade agreements and investment treaties, which often include provisions that protect the rights of foreign investors over the rights of local communities and ecosystems. These agreements can limit the ability of local governments to regulate the activities of foreign corporations, and can make it difficult for communities and environmental organizations to hold these corporations accountable for environmental damage or human rights violations.
Another mode of leveraging resource extraction is through the use of economic development projects, such as large-scale infrastructure projects or extractive industries, that are designed to promote economic growth in these countries. While these projects can bring benefits such as job creation and increased access to markets, they can also have significant environmental and social impacts, including the displacement of local communities and the destruction of critical habitats.
To address these issues, a number of organizations and individuals have advocated for the rights of nature, arguing that ecosystems and other natural resources have inherent rights that should be protected. This approach is based on the recognition that ecosystems and natural resources are not just commodities, but are part of a larger web of life that has intrinsic value and should be protected for their own sake.
One notable example of this approach is the Rights of Nature movement, which seeks to promote legal frameworks that recognize the inherent rights of ecosystems and other natural resources. The movement has gained traction in a number of countries, including Ecuador, which became the first country to enshrine the rights of nature in its constitution in 2008. 
Other notable presentations to international agencies include the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples , which recognizes the rights of indigenous peoples to protect their lands and natural resources, and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets , which set specific goals for the protection and conservation of biodiversity around the world.
In conclusion, leveraging resource extraction in lesser developed countries is a complex issue that often has significant social and environmental impacts. While international trade agreements and economic development projects can bring benefits, they can also lead to the destruction of critical habitats and the displacement of local communities. Advocating for the rights of nature is one way to promote a more sustainable and equitable approach to resource management, and a number of international agreements and legal frameworks have been developed to support this approach.
 Ecudorian Constitution of 2008, 2011 revision (https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ecuador_2011?lang=en)  Ecuador’s Constitutional Rights of Nature, Implementation, Impacts, and Lessons Learned, Kyle Pietari, FALL 2016 WILLAMETTE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW JOURNAL 37 (https://willamette.edu/law/resources/journals/welj/pdf/2016/2016-f-welj-pietari.pdf)  'Can Rights of Nature Laws Make a Difference? In Ecuador, They Already Are' - The court’s ruling cheered environmentalists and sent shock waves through the mining industry, which now must prove that projects don’t harm ecosystems or endanger species (https://www.commondreams.org/views/2020/07/17/recent-developments-ecuador-rights-nature), Katie Surma, Feb 21, 2022  Rights of Nature in Ecuador(https://theecologist.org/2020/nov/06/rights-nature-ecuador) Rebekah Hayden, 6th November 2020  RIGHTS OF NATURE: THE ECUADORIAN CASE, Hugo Echeverría, 77 REVISTA ESMAT, JUL. 10. 2017 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333708922_RIGHTS_OF_NATURE_THE_ECUADORIAN_CASE)  United Nations Declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples (https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf)  Aichi Biodiversity Targets:(https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/)
- Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
- Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
- Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
- Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
- Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building  What Are the Aichi Biodiversity Targets?, Olivia Lai (https://earth.org/what-are-the-aichi-biodiversity-targets/)
Natural Resource Management and Preservation
Natural Resource Management (NRM) is a complex and multifaceted field that encompasses a broad range of activities and issues related to the sustainable management of natural resources, including land, water, forests, minerals, and biodiversity. In a global context, NRM is deeply connected to international relations, as the management of natural resources often involves cross-border trade, cooperation, and conflicts.
One important aspect of NRM in a global context is the use of debt-for-nature swaps, which are agreements between a debtor nation and a creditor nation or institution in which the debtor country agrees to protect its natural resources in exchange for debt relief or other financial incentives. These swaps have been used in many countries around the world, particularly in developing countries with high levels of debt and rich natural resources. For example, in the 1980s and 1990s, several Latin American countries used debt-for-nature swaps to protect their rainforests and other ecosystems.
Another important aspect of NRM in a global context is the development of safeguards to protect the natural resource components of the web of life. These safeguards can take many forms, including legal protections for biodiversity, sustainable land use planning, and the use of best management practices in agriculture, forestry, and mining. Many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), have developed guidelines and standards for NRM that include safeguards for biodiversity and natural resources.
In addition to these specific tools and approaches, NRM in a global context is also shaped by broader political, economic, and social factors. These can include issues such as resource nationalism, environmental justice, and the role of multinational corporations in natural resource extraction. For example, many developing countries have struggled to balance the economic benefits of resource extraction with the need to protect their natural resources and the rights of local communities.
In summary, NRM in a global context is a complex and multifaceted field that encompasses a broad range of issues related to the sustainable management of natural resources. Key aspects of this field include the use of debt-for-nature swaps and the development of safeguards to protect the natural resource components of the web of life. However, NRM is also shaped by broader political, economic, and social factors that can influence the management of natural resources around the world.